The Web became multi-directional. Je kunt informatie op verschillende manieren presenteren (bijv amazon.com). Gestart werd met een overzicht van de mogelijkheden voor gebruikers van Amazon.com.
Voor Amazon.com is belangrijk:
-Better understanding of users, Better tailoring of services and more sales
Voor gebruikers is belangrijk:
-Easier to evaluate materials, easier to find related materials and Fun
Twee typen bijdrages van gebruikers:
Expliciet en impliciet
Explicit user contribution
-Citations, Reviews, Tags, Rating
…Inspired by the success of Amazon, several organizations have created comment sites where scientists can share their opinions of scientific papers. Perhaps the best known was Nature’s 2006 trial of open commentary on papers undergoing
peer review at the journal (see Physics World January 2007 pp29—30). The trial was not a success, as Nature’s final report explained: “There was a significant level of expressed interest in open peer review. A small majority of those authors who did
participate received comments, but typically very few, despite significant Web traffic. Most comments were not technically substantive. Feedback suggests that there is a marked reluctance among researchers to offer open comments.”
Nielsen, M. (2009) Doing Science in the Open. physicsworld.com http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/indepth/38904
Implicit user contribution
• Circulation data
• Clickstreams, recording a search process
• Actions Item viewed, Item downloaded, Item sent, Item bookmarked, Item printed, Item stored
Potential use of implicit contribution
• Collection development
• Trend analysis
• Relevance ranking
Evaluation based on use?
• Shifting from authorship to readership
• Providing timely evaluation
• Covering new types of materials
Not instead of other measurements. In addition to them!!!
First, count consistently!
Verschillende projecten worden besproken waarmee je gebruik van publicaties via
netwerk kunt meten.
COUNTER Counting online uses of NeTworked online resources
• Started in 2002
• 100 compliant vendors
• 15,000+ full text journals
• Defined reports and code of practice
Then, derive metrics for scholarly evaluation
Usage Factor =
Total usage over period ‘x’ of articles published during period ‘y’ : Total articles published during period ‘y’
Next Project Steps
• Developing a program of data modelling and analysis
• Identifying potential candidate metrics for longer term scaled up testing
Comparisons made with citation-based data:
1. Popularity: number of links/connections to/from the journal
2. Shortest Path: network distance and strength
3. Prestige: number of prestigious journals that link to the journal
Bovenstaande in Comparisons made with citation-based data
What is bX?
• A new recommender service for scholarly materials, primarily articles
• Derives from the Los Alamos research
• Built on the OpenURL framework: based on data mining and structural analysis of aggregated link resolver logs
• Hosted service
• Released (beta) in May 2009.
Link resolver logs?
• Link resolver logs serve as a good basis
• Represent users’ information-seeking paths in a standardized way
• Are across information providers
• Are across institutions
• Furthermore, there are many of them
Er werden voorbeelden getoond van zoeken in Ex Libris, Scopes, Google Scholar, Ebsco
To make a long story short…
• Data is harvested from link resolver logs through OAI protocol for metadata harvesting (OAI-PMH)
• A structure describing relationships between scholarly materials is created
• A list of recommended materials is generated per request
“The Web, they say, is leaving the era of search and entering one of discovery. What's the difference? Search is what you do when you're looking for something. Discovery is when something wonderful that you didn't know existed, or didn't know how to ask for, finds you.“
Jeffrey M. O’Brien, "The race to create a 'smart' Google“